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Facts and information about Antimony

by chemdude71

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from Latin stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the mineral stibnite.

Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name kohl.

China is the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from Hunan.

The largest applications for metallic antimony are in alloys with lead and tin.



Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb
Antimony’s periodic symbol comes from Jons Jakob Berzelius, who used the abbreviation for stibium.
Antimony atomic number is 51
Antimony was named after the Greek words anti and monos to mean “a metal not found alone.”
Elemental antimony is a brittle, silver-white, shiny metalloid.
The abundance of antimony in the Earth’s crust is estimated at 0.2 parts per million

The earliest known description of the metal in the West was written in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio.
Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used as medicine and cosmetics
They often went by the Arabic name kohl

Antimony is a member of group 15 of the periodic table
Antimony is one of the elements called pnictogens
Antimony is stable in air at room temperature
Antimony is resistant to attack by acids.
Antimony reacts with oxygen when it is heated.

Antimony has two stable isotopes: 121Sb and 123Sb
121Sb has a natural abundance of 57.36% and 123Sb has a natural abundance of 42.64%
It has 35 radioisotopes
Antimony is found in more than 100 mineral species

China accounted for 54.5% of total antimony production, followed in second place by Russia with 18.2% and Tajikistan with 15.5%
Antimony is considered to be a critical mineral for industrial manufacturing that is at risk of supply chain disruption.
No new antimony deposits have been discovered in over ten years, so the current stock is being depleted.
Other countries that make antimony are Myanmar and Australia

Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic
The effects of antimony poisoning are similar to arsenic poisoning.
Inhalation of antimony dust is harmful and in certain cases may be fatal.
In small doses, antimony causes headaches, dizziness, and depression.
Antimony leaches from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into liquids


Antimony sulfide was used in predynastic Egypt as an eye cosmetic called kohl
Antimony trioxide is an additive used for halogen-containing flame retardants.
It is used as an alloy with lead in the pipes of pipe organs
Antimony is also used as a dopant in semiconductor devices.
It makes an alloy with lead. This alloy, 5% antimony and 95% lead, is harder than pure lead.
Approximately 48% of antimony is used in flame retardants, 33% in lead–acid batteries, and 8% in plastics.
Antimony sulfide is used in the heads of some safety matches
Some lead-free solder has antimony in it
It is used as an alloy with lead in ammunition for small arms





Appearance silvery lustrous gray
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Sb)
  • 121.760±0.001
  • 121.76±0.01 (abridged)
Atomic number 51
Group group 15 (pnictogens)
Period period 5
Block   p-block
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Physical properties
Phase at STP solid
Melting point 903.78 K ​(630.63 °C, ​1167.13 °F)
Boiling point 1908 K ​(1635 °C, ​2975 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 6.697 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 6.53 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 19.79 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 193.43 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.23 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 807 876 1011 1219 1491 1858
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.05
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 834 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1594.9 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2440 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 206 pm
Other properties
Natural occurrence primordial
Crystal structure ​rhombohedral
Speed of sound thin rod 3420 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 11 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 24.4 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity 417 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility −99.0×10−6 cm3/mol
Young’s modulus 55 GPa
Shear modulus 20 GPa
Bulk modulus 42 GPa
Mohs hardness 3.0
Brinell hardness 294–384 MPa
CAS Number 7440-36-0
Discovery Arab alchemists
Symbol “Sb”: from Latin stibium ‘stibnite’
Main isotopes[5] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
121Sb 57.2% stable
123Sb 42.8% stable
125Sb synth 2.7576 y β 125Te


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